The argument was that it was wrong for Butler to suppress dissent on the Columbia campus among its faculty, because of the principle of academic freedom, which was a relatively new principle in American academic life at the time of the First World War.
Still, as Bálint Magyar observes , their failure to marshal national symbols to legitimize the new democracy prevented the ethos of the republic … from touching the souls of the people." Nor did they advance a stirring narrative that couched the nation's recent democratic success in the heroic tradition of the 1848 and 1956 revolts.
In a life where people are constantly in competition with one another, however, where sharing and showing mutual concern are usually penalized and even ridiculedin short, in the illusory communitythere are few occasions to express feelings of fellowship.
Still another variety is the patriotism of liberty" propounded by Maurizio Viroli, who calls for a return to what patriotism used to be before it was harnessed in the service of the nation-state and submerged in nationalism: love of the laws and institutions of one's polity and the common liberty they make possible (Viroli 1995).